Como bien sabes, en el Colegio tenemos un Programa de Altas Capacidades en el que trabajamos, con los alumnos que así lo desean, en actividades que les suponen un reto intelectual y una ampliación de conocimientos más allá del currículo.
Durante este curso, los alumnos del Programa de Altas Capacidades de 3º de Primaria han investigado sobre los festivales y las fiestas que se realizan en las diferentes partes del mundo.
3º Primaria: Festivales y fiestas tradicionales alrededor del mundo
El tema de este proyecto lo eligieron los propios alumnos después de un par de sesiones en clase de lluvia de ideas, o brainstorming, en las que los niños fueron lanzando las distintas ideas que se les ocurrían. Tras ponerse de acuerdo y tener claro el tema: «festivales y fiestas tradicionales en diferentes partes del mundo«, se pusieron a investigar.
El primer trimestre se dedicó a la Navidad en diferentes partes de Europa; los alumnos se dividieron en grupos y cada uno de ellos eligió un país diferente. Investigaron sobre sus tradiciones, comidas, y actividades típicas.
El segundo trimestre, indagaron sobre los festivales que se celebran en diferentes partes del mundo, esta vez sin incluir Europa, y tabajando de forma individual.
El tercer y último trimestre cambiaron de tercio y se dedicaron a las manualidades. Se les propuso la realización de alguna manualidad representativa de algunos de los festivales para poder exponerlo en los pasillos.
Además, todas las actividades las han realizado en inglés.
Te mostramos su proyecto, disfrútalo:
☞ TRIMESTER ONE, CHRISTMAS THROUGHOUT EUROPE
The boys and girls in the Gifted Children’s Program spent the first school term investigating the Christmas traditions, peculiarities and some typical foods from five different countries around Europe: Germany, Greece, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Here we present you with a some of the information they have discovered through their hard work. We hope you enjoy it and that you find it as interesting as we have. The countries are presented in alphabetical order, with the flag and the Christmas greeting in the native tongue at the beginning of each section. We have also included links to some traditional Christmas Carols.
- GERMANY (Daniel Soto, Matias, Victoria)
The Advent Calendar
The advent calendar represents the countdown to Christmas Eve beginning on the first of December. Every day a new door or window is opened to discover the surprise inside, this can be anything from a piece of chocolate or other sweet to a small gift such as earrings or something similar. Many of the older advent calendars displayed religious scenes behind the doors rather than gifts. This tradition dates back to the 18th century and is now celebrated in many parts of the world.
Saint Nikolaus Day
In Germany, the night of December 5th is very important because it’s when Saint Nikolaus comes to visit. Before going to bed each child puts a nice, clean pair of shoes outside their bedroom door with the hope the either Nikolaus or his assistant, Knecht Ruprecht, might leave a small gift inside of them. These gifts normally consist of nuts, oranges or a small bag of sweets. Ironically, Saint Nikolaus goes to Germany from Spain. Saint Nikolaus traditionally wears the clothes of a Bishop and, unlike other similar characters, he may be seen by the children of the family as he visits the house.
The Christmas Tree
One of Germany’s biggest Christmas exports is the Christmas tree. This has been a German tradition for at least 400 years, which has its origin in the use of evergreen branches as decorations in German homes.
Mulled wine is a hot wine with spices, a great treat for cold Winter days.
The traditional Christmas meal features duck, goose, rabbit or a roast. This main dish is accompanied by German delicacies such as apple and sausage stuffing, red cabbage and potato dumplings. Dessert typically includes Christmas Stollen, considered one of the best Christmas pastries in the world!
- GREECE (Begoña, Cristina, Rodrigo)
The people of Greece have held Christmas celebrations for quite some time. Within their commonly held traditions, there are some that derive from typical Christmas festivities around the world, yet also others that are completely unique to Greece.
The primary tradition that has existed for thousands of years is that of the singing of Kalanda, which is quite similar to Christmas carols in other parts of the world. Kalanda is typically sung by children, as they go from house to house singing a number of carols while playing a plethora of instruments, such as triangles, drums, lyres, and guitars (watch the video below to listen to one). It was a custom for the recipient of Kalanda to gift the children with small treats, such as chocolates, pastries and other sweets, though this has transitioned mostly to monetary gifts over the years. Kalanda’s are also sung on the eve of both New Years and Epiphany.
The natives of Greece prepare for Christmas by fasting for 40 days, after which they dine on a large feast. Dishes prepared for these feasts are typically created using pork, lamb, or goat meat as the main dish, with a variety of appetizers and desserts to round out the meal. It is known as the Advent feast. There are many traditional Greek foods associated with this feast, as a plethora of them have consisted for centuries. Pork and lamb are the most popular of main dishes, having been used as such since ancient times.
Either as the first meal after Christmas Eve church services, or the first course at the main meal of the day, a chicken and rice soup made with the famous mixture of eggs and lemon juice (avgolemono) is a familiar sight in Greek homes.
It wouldn’t be Christmas in Kozani (and other cities in Northern Greece) without stuffed cabbage! In other parts of Greece, they are called lahanodolmades (cabbage dolmades) or lahanophylla yemista (stuffed cabbage leaves), but up north, they’re yiaprakia (γιαπράκια, say: yah-PRAHK-yah) and they are never missing from the Christmas table.
Cinnamon, cloves, orange—a traditional combination of tastes identified with the holiday season—are the common factor in these fabulous cookies that are (most often) dipped in a lightly spiced syrup after baking, then topped with sprinkled nuts. In many parts of Greece, the term «Christmas Cookies» means melomakarona.
- POLAND (Guillermo, Juan, Mario)
Christmas Eve is known as Wigilia (pronounced vee-GHEE-lee-uh). Traditionally, the house is also cleaned and everyone wore their best festive clothes. The main Christmas meal is eaten in the evening and is called «Kolacja wigilijna» (Christmas Eve supper). It’s traditional that no food is eaten until the first star is seen in the sky! So children look at the night sky to spot the first star!
On the table there are 12 dishes – they are meant to give you good luck for the next 12 months. The meal is traditionally meat free, this is to remember the animals who took take of the baby Jesus in the manger. Everyone has to eat or at least try some of each dish.
People in Poland also like kissing under the mistletoe!
In Poland they use a Christmas tree, and the presents are brought by Santa Claus.
One of the most important dishes is «barszcz» (beetroot soup) and it’s obligatory to have it. If you really hate it, you can eat mushroom soup instead! The barszcz may be eaten with «uszka» (little dumplings with mushrooms) or «krokiety» (pancakes with mushrooms or/and cabbage, in breadcrumbs, fried on oil or butter)
«Bigos» is a dish which can be eaten either hot or cold. It’s made of cabbage, bacon, sometimes dried plums – so it is saved for Christmas day or the 26th as it has meat in it. It is made about a week or so before Christmas Eve, because with each day it gets better.
The most popular desserts at Kolacja wigilijna are «makowiec», a poppy seed roll made of sweet yeast bread, «kutia» mixed dried fruits and nuts with wheat seeds, «piernik» a moist cake made with honey (that’s like gingerbread) and gingerbreads (which are usually dry and very hard)
- SWEEDEN (Gonzalo, Marta, Valeria)
Around Christmas time in Sweden, one of the biggest celebrations is St. Lucia’s Day (or St. Lucy’s Day) on December 13th. The celebration comes from stories that were told by Monks who first brought Christianity to Sweden. St. Lucia’s Day is now celebrated by a girl dressing in a white dress with a red sash round her waist and a crown of candles on her head. Small children use electric candles but from about 12 years old, real candles are often used! The crown is made of Lingonberry branches which are evergreen and symbolise new life in winter. Schools normally have their own St. Lucia’s and some town and villages also choose a girl to play St. Lucia in a procession where carols are sung.
First thing first, the Swedish christmas food is called Julbord, that translates to christmas table. It’s basically a smorgasbord with a few dishes that is only available during christmas.
The Swedish christmas ham is served cold. It’s a salted boiled ham that is then gratinated with mustard and breadcrumbs on top. You eat it as a cold cut or with extra mustard and bread. Smoked meat is a big thing as well and it has a wide range. There is no must smoked meat but some should be served. The selection is often regional with more game in the north and more lamb further south. Things you might be served are lamb leg, venison heart, reindeer, beef.
Red cabbage is the most common variety of warm cabbage served. It’s shredded red cabbage that is boiled with vinegar, apples, onion, sugar or syrup. Here the recipes can be altered in many ways and the flavor depend accordingly. There is also red cabbage available to buy that is ready to heat.
A mix of candy and some more regular desserts are available but the traditions are less strict, you can almost serve anything sweet that you like.
- THE UNITED KINGDOM (Daniel Ríos, Emma, Margarita)
Most families have a Christmas Tree (or maybe even two!) in their house for Christmas. The decorating of the tree is usually a family occasion, with everyone helping. Christmas Trees were first popularised the UK by Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. Prince Albert was German, and thought that it would be good to use one of his ways of celebrating Christmas in England
There are some customs that only take place, or were started, in the UK. Wassailing is an old anglo-saxon custom that doesn’t take place much today. Boxing Day is a very old custom that started in the UK and is now taken as a holiday in many countries around the world.
In Scots (a Scottish dialect) Happy/Merry Christmas is ‘Blithe Yule’; in Gaelic it’s ‘Nollaig Chridheil’; in Welsh (which is spoken in some parts of Wales it’s ‘Nadolig Llawen’, in Cornish (spoken by some poeple in Cornwall in south west England) it’s ‘Nadelik Lowen’ and Manx (spoken by some people on the Isle of Man) it’s ‘Nollick Ghennal’.
Some things are obligatory at Christmas:
- Write a letter to Santa Claus and burn them in the fireplace so the ashes Will fly up the chimney and Father Christmas can read the smoke.
- Hanging stockings at the end of the bed hoping they Will be filled by Christmas morning.
- Making crackers. It’s a paper tube twisted at both ends like a large sweet. Inside are hidden little treasures.
- Making a crown of tinsel paper. It’s been a tradition since the early 1900’s.
- Mid-day dinner with a roast turkey or goose, parsnips and Yorkshire pudding.
Starters: cream of pumpkin and seet potato soup.
Main course: roast turkey with gravy, cranberry sauce and potatoes.
Desert: Christmas pudding with custard and mince pies.
☞ SECOND TRIMESTRE, FESTIVALS OF THE WORLD
WINTER LIGHT FESTIVAL
MARTA FERNANDEZ DE NOGRARO SANZ
They celebrate this festival in China on the 22nd of December. This is the day of the Winter Solstice. It’s the shortest day of the year. On that day, the northern hemisphere has the shortest daytime and longest nighttime.
The custom has persisted and people presently call it the Small New Year, when ancestor worshipping ceremonies and family reunions usually happen.
VICTORIA CABALLERO GARCÍA
They celebrate it in Mongolia. The festival is in summer and is from July 11-13. During the festival they have 3 activities : Mongolian wrestling, horse racing and archery. The celebration is to commemorate the 1921 revolution when Mongolia declared its independence from China. They celebrate the most famous festival in Mongolia.
The festival is also locally termed «eriin gurvan naadam» (эрийн гурван наадам) «the three games of men».
Where do they celebrate it? They celebrate it, mainly, in Italy, Brazil and Spain.
When is the festival? In February or March, depending on the date of Resurrection Sunday.
What happens during the festival? People wear costumes.
Why do they have the festival? Carnival is celebrated in Brazil every year, 40 days before the Easter festival.
What do they celebrate it? They celebrate that they can eat meat for the last time because Lent begins the next day.
CHIANG MAI FLOWER FESTIVAL
Where do they celebrate it? In Chiang Mai, Thailand. It features displays of yellow and white white.It features displays of yellow and white white chrysanthemums, and the Damask Rose, a variety found only in Chiang Mai.
When is the festival? The first week of February.
What happens during the festival? There is a flower parade, with floats covered in flowers, and also the election of Miss Chiang Mai Flower Festival.
Why do they have the festival? To celebrate the coming of the warm season.
CHERRY BLOSSOM FESTIVAL
Where do they celebrate it ? They celebrate it in Japan and in Washington DC.
When is the festival ? This two – week festival begins with an opening ceremony in Spring, coinciding with the blooming of the cherry trees.
What happens during the festival ? There are different events during the festival, for example; kite flying competitions, fireworks, and parades among other things.
What do they celebrate ? They celebrate the end of Winter and the arrival of Spring.
VALERIA DEL VALLE
Holi is a festival that is celebrated in India. It is also known as “the Festival of Colors” or the “Festival of Love ” The festival signifies the victory of good over evil, the arrival of Spring, the end of winter,and for many a holiday to meet others , play and laugh , forget and forgive, and repair broken relationships . It is also celebrated as a thanskgiving for a good harvest. It’s for a night and a day , starting on the evening of the 1st of March and ending the 2nd of March .
How do we celebrate Holi?
Holi is one of the most popular Hindu festivals, and it’s celebrated by people both young and old. From lighting the Holika bonfire, to playing colors, to visiting with friends and family, Holi is a wonderful celebration to bring the community together and celebrate the triumph of good over evil.
Féte des Masques
Where do they celebrate it? The Fete des Masques is celebrated by the Dogon tribal communities throughout West Africa.
When is the festival? The festival is in April and May every year.
What happens during the festival? The Dogon tribe members dance with masks to help tell the story of the origin of the Dogon.
Why do they have the festival? The festival is to celebrate the harvest and to remember the dead.
It’s the most important festival of the year, and the masks are the most important part of the celebration.
SONGKRAN WATER FESTIVAL
Where do they celebrate it? They celebrate it in Thailand.
When is the festival? The festival is from the 13th to the 15th of April.
What happens during the festival? Water parties and battles, to celebrate the New Year. It is the most important celebration in Thailand and the biggest wáter fight in the world!
Why do they have the festival? The celebration is in honor of the Thailandese New Year. The wáter is used to symbolise purification for the beginning of the year.
The word «Songkran» comes from the Sanskrit word saṃkrānti literally «astrological passage», meaning transformation or change.
DRAGON BOAT FESTIVAL
Where do they celebrate it? They celebrate it in China
When is the festival? The festival is on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar.
What do they celebrate? It conmemorates the deaththe life and death of the famous Chinese scholar Qu Yuan. It has also been known as “Poets’ Day” in honor of the same man who was China’s first poet.
What happens during the festival? It’s a celebration where people eat rice dumplings, drink wine and race the spectacular dragon boats.
Another activity during this festivity is to try to balance an egg on the end of your nose at noon. If you manage to do it, you will have good health and luck for the next year.
When is the festival? Nowruz is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It usually occurs on March 21 or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals.
What happens during the festival? The actual Nowruz ceremonies begin on the eve of the last Wednesday of the outgoing year. Early in the evening of that day, referred to as chaharshanbe souri or “Red Wednesdayˮ, several rather large bonfires are made; every member of the family jumps over the fire and says, “sorkhi-e to az man, zardi-e man az toˮ, which literally means “Give me your redness and take away my wintry sallow complexionˮ. The jumping over the fire is followed by a get together in which nuts and fruits are served.
Why do they have the festival? Of all the Persian national festivals, the New Year celebrations are at once the most important and the most colorful. This festival embodies a wealth of ancient rites and customs, and is about the only one in Persia which is not confined to the traditions of only one religious group. It symbolizes that continuity of the ancient Persian culture
What do they celebrate? It marks the beginning of the Persian New Year.
CHINESE NEW YEAR
When is the celebration? This year, it was in February
Where is it celebrated? Most importantly, in China, but it’s celebrated wherever you can find Chinese people living.
What happens during the festival? Chinese New Year celebrations, also known as the Spring Festival, in China start on the 23rd day of the 12th lunar month of the Chinese calendar. The festival lasts for about 23 days, ending on the 15th day of the first lunar month in the following year in the Chinese calendar.
Main traditions include eating dinner with the family, giving red envelopes with money inside, firecrackers, new clothes and decorations.
HARBIN ICE AND LIGHT FESTIVAL
Where do they celebrate it? In the Heilongjiang province in China.
When is the festival? From the 24th of December to the 25th if February.
What happens during the festival? They exhibit huge figures made out of ice and snow.
Why do they have the festival? Because it’s a tradition.
☞ SOME FABULOUS HANDCRAFTS WE MADE TO REPRESENT A FEW OF THE FESTIVALS
Lanterns for the light festival
The Cherry Blossom Festival and Chiang Mai
The Dragon Boat Festival and Chinese New Year
Más fotos de las manualidades sobre el Dragon Boat Festival and Chinese New Year en nuestra página de Facebook.